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Nils Peters, 06/02/2009 04:29 pm


Directivity Extension

  • Orientation of entity (Yaw, Pitch, Roll)
  • Directivity model ...... there are different models out there, what might be the best?
    o AudioTwist
    o Spatialisateur (aperture)
    o Space Unit Generator
    o openAL, directX
    o X3D (ellipsoids)
    o CATT-Acoustics (SD0, SD1, SD2 file format)
    o Common Loudspeaker File Format (CLF)

Review

Spatialisateur

Space Unit Generator

taken from Moore, F. R. (1983). A General Model for Spatial Processing of Sounds. CMJ, 7(6):6 – 15.

ViMiC

The source directivity can be modeled through a frequency independent gain factor between 0 and 1. for each radiation angle to a 1º accuracy.

AudioTwist

OpenAL

ability to simulate realistic directivity characteristics by either specifying parametric filtering associated to radiation angles, or triplets of angle, frequency and attenuation.
(Jean Marc Jot, "Scene Description Model and Rendering Engine for Interactive Virtual Acoustics", 120th AES Convention)

X3D Sound Node

  • Inner ellipsoid defines a volume of space in which the maximum level of the sound is audible. Within this ellipsoid, the normalized sample data is scaled by the intensity field and there is no attenuation. The inner ellipsoid is defined by extending the direction vector through the location. The minBack and minFront fields specify distances behind and in front of the location along the direction vector respectively. The inner ellipsoid has one of its foci at location (the second focus is implicit) and intersects the direction vector at minBack and minFront.
  • Outer ellipsoid defines a volume of space that bounds the audibility of the sound. No sound can be heard outside of this outer ellipsoid. The outer ellipsoid is defined by extending the direction vector through the location. The maxBack and maxFront fields specify distances behind and in front of the location along the direction vector respectively. The outer ellipsoid has one of its foci at location (the second focus is implicit) and intersects the direction vector at maxBack and maxFront.
  • The minFront, maxFront, minBack, and maxBack fields are defined in local coordinates, and are ≥ zero.
  • minBackmaxBack
  • minFrontmaxFront
  • Parameters are specified in the local coordinate system but the ellipsoids' geometry is affected by ancestors' transformations.
  • Between the two ellipsoids, there shall be a linear attenuation ramp in loudness, from 0 dB at the minimum ellipsoid to -20 dB at the maximum ellipsoid: attenuation = -20 × (d' / d") (d' is the distance along the location-to-viewer vector, measured from the transformed minimum ellipsoid boundary to the viewer, and d" is the distance along the location-to-viewer vector from the transformed minimum ellipsoid boundary to the transformed maximum ellipsoid boundary)

X3D Sound Node

 Sound : X3DSoundNode { 
   SFVec3f [in,out] direction    0 0 1 (-∞,∞) 
   SFFloat [in,out] intensity    1       [0,1] 
   SFVec3f [in,out] location     0 0 0 (-∞,∞) 
   SFFloat [in,out] maxBack      10      [0,∞) 
   SFFloat [in,out] maxFront     10      [0,∞) 
   SFNode    [in,out] metadata     NULL    [X3DMetadataObject] 
   SFFloat [in,out] minBack      1       [0,∞) 
   SFFloat [in,out] minFront     1       [0,∞) 
   SFFloat [in,out] priority     0       [0,1] 
   SFNode    [in,out] source       NULL    [X3DSoundSourceNode] 
   SFBool    []         spatialize TRUE 
 }

DirectX Audio / XACT AUDIO_CONE

  • concentric cones
  • at any angle outside the outer cone, the volume is attenuated. The outside cone volume level is expressed as a linear amplitude scaler: 1.0f represents no attenuation applied to the original signal, 0.5f denotes an attenuation of 6dB, and 0.0f results in silence. Amplification (volume > 1.0f) is also allowed and is not clamped. The valid volume range is actually 0.0f to 2.0f.
  • Between the inner and outer cones is a zone of transition from the inside volume to the outside volume. The volume approaches the cone's outer volume as the angle increases.
  • Cones can affect parameters other than volume. Low pass filter and reverb send level may also be affected. For example, with a cone on the listener, one can specify all sounds behind the listener get a bit muffled and have slightly higher reverb-to-direct ratio content.

Microsoft's Sound Cone description

API X3DAUDIO_CONE

Specifies directionality for a single-channel non-LFE emitter by scaling DSP behavior with respect to the emitter's orientation.

 typedef struct X3DAUDIO_CONE { 
     FLOAT32 InnerAngle; 
     FLOAT32 OuterAngle; 
     FLOAT32 InnerVolume; 
     FLOAT32 OuterVolume; 
     FLOAT32 InnerLPF; 
     FLOAT32 OuterLPF; 
     FLOAT32 InnerReverb; 
     FLOAT32 OuterReverb; 
 } X3DAUDIO_CONE, *LPX3DAUDIO_CONE;

Members

InnerAngle: Inner cone angle in radians. This value must be within 0.0f to X3DAUDIO_2PI.
OuterAngle: Outer cone angle in radians. This value must be within InnerAngle to X3DAUDIO_2PI.
InnerVolume: Volume scaler on/within inner cone. This value must be within 0.0f to 2.0f.
OuterVolume: Volume scaler on/beyond outer cone. This value must be within 0.0f to 2.0f.
InnerLPF: LPF direct-path or reverb-path coefficient scaler on/within inner cone. This value is only used for LPF calculations and must be within 0.0f to 1.0f.
OuterLPF: LPF direct-path or reverb-path coefficient scaler on or beyond outer cone. This value is only used for LPF calculations and must be within 0.0f to 1.0f.
InnerReverb: Reverb send level scaler on or within inner cone. This must be within 0.0f to 2.0f.
OuterReverb: Reverb send level scaler on/beyond outer cone. This must be within 0.0f to 2.0f.

Files

DirectX-Audio.gif - Microsoft's Sound Cone description (8.87 KB) Nils Peters, 06/02/2009 12:27 am

X3D.gif - X3D Sound Node (4.39 KB) Nils Peters, 06/02/2009 12:57 am

SUG.gif - taken from Moore, F. R. (1983). A General Model for Spatial Processing of Sounds. CMJ, 7(6):6 – 15. (36.3 KB) Nils Peters, 06/02/2009 01:14 am

ViMiC.gif (18.1 KB) Nils Peters, 06/02/2009 04:15 pm

SD1.gif - taken from http://www.ptb.de/en/org/1/17/173/richtchar.htm (28.6 KB) Nils Peters, 06/02/2009 04:58 pm